Watermelon seeds help in improving male fertility.

2015-04-03-watermelon-seeds-tea-2-fb-2Watermelon: Symbolizing the Supposed Simplicity of Slaves

Watermelon seeds,

are good sources of magnesium vital for normal heart functioning, maintenance of normal blood pressure, supporting metabolic process and protein synthesis. It is also beneficial in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and hypertension besides controlling blood pressure and diabetes.Roasted watermelon seeds are served as a snack or used to garnish salads. In Nigeria they are used in certain soups. Watermelon seed oil is extracted from these seeds which is beneficial for your hair and skin. To say the least, watermelon seeds are edible and can be a healthy option.

watermelon seeds

are a rich source of nutrients and minerals and therefore, should not be discarded. These seeds have a hard outer covering so they should be chewed before swallowing to get their nutritional content. Some of the health benefits of watermelon seeds are given below. http

Watermelon seed tea is considered to be a natural diuretic helpful for kidney cleansing.


Food historians believe that African slaves helped introduce the watermelon, now the most consumed melon in the US. The fruit eventually became a major symbol in the iconography of racism in the United States through the “watermelon stereotype”. In various images, the fruit was used to paint African Americans as a simple-minded people who were happy when provided watermelon and a little rest.

Watermelon seeds can be baked with salt for a protein-rich and tasty snack, which has a similar flavor and consistency to pumpkin seeds, or prepared in a tea to maximize its diuretic effects.

How To Make Watermelon Seed Tea


  • 30-40 watermelon seeds, fresh or dried
  • water


  1. Crush 4 tablespoons of fresh watermelon seeds using a mortar and pestle, or grind them up in a food processor.
  2. Cook for 10 minutes in two litres of water over high heat.
  3. Drink the entire two litres of tea over a period of two days for full effect.

This tea is especially good for those with digestive issues, or those who are prone to urinary tract infections. So instead of opting for seedless watermelons – which are less flavourful than watermelons with seeds and are part of a relatively new strain of watermelon mass-produced for consumers – or spitting out the seeds and throwing them away, the next time you eat watermelon, consider saving the seeds to roast or brew in a tea. Your body will ultimately thank you for providing it with such a nutritious snack or beverage.Watermelon-eathealthylivefit_com

Watermelon, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 127 kJ (30 kcal)

7.55 g

Sugars 6.2 g
Dietary fiber 0.4 g


0.15 g

0.61 g

Vitamin A equiv.


28 μg


303 μg

Thiamine (B1)


0.033 mg

Riboflavin (B2)


0.021 mg

Niacin (B3)


0.178 mg


0.221 mg

Vitamin B6


0.045 mg



4.1 mg

Vitamin C


8.1 mg

Trace metals


7 mg



0.24 mg



10 mg



0.038 mg



11 mg



112 mg



1 mg



0.1 mg

Other constituents
Water 91.45 g
Lycopene 4532 µg Watermelon seeds contain lycopene which is good for your face and also helps in improving male fertility.



OH LORD #OHLORD Michael Brown Native Plants Institute Oh Higher Learning Walnut Park St. Louis MO

Mike Brown Native Plant Institute (MBNPI )

Richland School District 2 Superintendent Dr. Debbie Hamm #grandparentsunited #BlackParentsAssociation —#AssaultAtSpringValleyHigh

we have not seen an decrease in police violence -ohlord-michael-brown-native-plants-institute-oh-higher-learning-walnut-park-st-louis-mo WHO is violent, the Slaver or the Slave?

The goal of this project is to educate children about the useful qualities of the noxious weeds, to relieve hunger, experience new incredible flavors and bring people closer to Nature. Harvesting them for our own good would be a wonderful way to control the weeds instead of pouring hundreds of gallons of pesticides, poisoning our land and drinking water.

Mchael Brown School of Botany and natural Plants Missouri St. Louis Walnut Park School

Michael Brown School of Botany and natural Plants Missouri St. Louis Walnut Park School

Traditional Herbal Herbs and Shrubs Michael Brown Native Plants Institute Oh Higher Learning Walnut Park St. Louis MO

work focuses on valuing and conserving nature, ensuring effective and equitable governance of ecosystem, and deploying
nature-based solutions to ecosystem challenges in climate, food and development. Mike Brown Native Plant Institute (MBNPI ) supports scientific research and management of  field projects that Detour

People Killing for Water through Global Water Planning Projectors

ireweed treating ailments save lives

research about the traditional use of the invasive plants in their courtiers of origins, to discover range of medicinal and culinary properties they possess. Plants win competition with others and spread widely in the new territory because they possess many powerful qualities that make them stronger than many other species. Not accidentally they were used to treat deadly diseases for centuries in traditional medicine of many cultures. They were brought to U.S. by settlers for their useful qualities, their beauty and few – accidentally. Purpose: re-learn what our ancestors knew about these plants, – they are the nature’s great resource.

why we’re doing it

We know this work is for the good of environment and people. We focus mainly on the invasive weeds in Ferguson MO. We currently teach about the useful invasive weeds at afterschool programs with parental permission, but would like to have enough educational materials to reach many more children and adults in local communities via schools and community centers.

USDA to invest $20 million to help 15 states increase recreational public access on private farm, ranch, and forest lands

Agriculture Secretary Vilsack announces $150 million, new partnership to support water quality and quantity in drought-stricken California

NRCS Awards Missouri Department of Conservation One of 15 Grants In addition to Missouri, NRCS awarded grants for projects in Colorado, Connecticut, Illinois, Kansas, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Oregon, Washington, Wisconsin and Wyoming. Nationally, NRCS is providing $20 million to projects in the 15 states.

Volunteers Needed!

This project’s leader is looking for volunteers to help out:

We need people who are passionate about the environment and plants to learn about our project and help in distribution of the flyers and education of public.

The first step in the development of appropriate management policies is to put in place a system where the interests of all the stakeholders can be adequately and properly addressed. Plants have been meeting the basic needs of food, cloth and shelter ever since the emergence of Homo sapiens. Plants are also the source of human health care products. Plants have been used as medicines since beginning of human civilization.

Native Natural Plants Club
Native Natural Plants Club

This species is also used in the treatment of bleeding from cut, cutting wound, bullet wound,

WHO is violent, the Slaver or the Slave?

The gang may pool its resources, its own resources, to pay off the debt for that individual. The individual who incurred the debt may have to work it off for the other gang. If he owes a debt to another gang, he may have to assault one of their enemies, maybe a guard who they don’t like or another inmate, and work off that debt. Or it may be, what’s unfortunately somewhat common in California, that when an individual gang can’t pay a debt back, his own gang will assault him to the satisfaction of the rival gang leader. To the satisfaction that he’s been assaulted to the extent that the message has been sent. So, in a lot of these different ways, some from just apologies, to assaults, these gangs are regulating their own members to make life a little bit easier when interacting with other people. Russ: And the gangs are racially divided–that’s one way they are divided. Correct? Guest: They are overwhelmingly racially divided. And the inmates themselves refer to not just the gang actors but the race actors. Right? Everything is segregated along racial lines. And the groups themselves are segregated at least along racial lines. Sometimes geographic factors matter. So, in California, for example, Hispanic inmates will affiliate with one or another prison group based on whether they are from Northern or from Southern California. Russ: This group, community responsibility is a fascinating example of dealing with a free-rider problem. It reminds me of a story that I am told that when Walter Williams teaches at George Mason U., he tells students that if your cell phone goes off, the people on both sides of you will get a reduction in their grade, lose a certain number of points. When I tell that to people they always say, ‘Well, that’s so unfair.’ Yes, it is. What it means is that people on both sides, around you, people are going to tell each other, to ask, ‘Is your cellphone off?’ And in the ideal system, the phone never goes off. There’s never anything unfair because the punishment deters people from misbehavior and free riding on the group’s identity, and degrading the group’s brand name. And so that’s just incredible. The prison, when you have violence as opposed to losing 5 points on your homework score, it’s pretty effective. For Written Audio

Hemp Products

Climbing Hemp

People Killing for Water Global Water Wars Planning

Phytochemicals are chemical compounds that occur naturally in plants (phyto means “plant” in Greek).

It has been estimated that only 20-30% of the world’s flora of approximately 250,000-500,000 species has been subjected to phytochemical investigations (Principle, 1990; Simmonds and Grayer, 1999; Cordell, 2000; Plotkin, 2001). Of an estimated 75,000 edible plant species known in the world, only 2500 species have ever been eaten with regularity and a mere 150 species have been exploited commercially and only 20 feed the world population. About 9,500 wild plant species used by indigenous people for meeting their various requirements have been documented. Out of 7,500 wild plant species used by indigenous people for medicinal purposes, about 950 species have been found to be useful in health care for the first time; out of about 3,900 plant species used as edibles about 800 have been found as novel food yielding species and 250 species among them have potential to develop as alternative sources of food; out of 525 wild plant species used for making fibre and cordage, about 50 species have potential for commercial exploitation; out of 400 wild plant species used as fodder, about 100 species have potential for wider use; and out of 300 wild plant species used as pesticides and piscicides, about 175 have potential for the development of bio-pesticides (Pushpangadan, 1984; Mishra, 1985; Saklani and Jain, 1996; Saini, 1996; Prakash and Singh, 2000; Nautiyal et al., 2000-2001; Satyavati, 2001; Sarin, 2003).FireWeed-More-Projibited-Getto-Food-

Health Benefits and Therapeutic Uses

Papaver somniferum L. opium poppy

The health benefits of poppy seeds include:

  • To treat vomiting and nausea
  • Adding poppy seeds to your daily diet can cure respiratory problems such as chronic cough and asthma
  • Poppy seed paste can stop diarrhea
  • Poppy seed paste when applied to swollen joints can provide pain relief
  • Apply a mix of poppy seed paste under the eyes to reduce dark circles and swollen eyelids
  • The oleic acid in poppy seeds lower bad cholesterol levels (LDL) and increase good or HDL levels
  • Eating poppy seeds can prevent heart disease and strokes due to the high content of monounsaturated fats
  • The zinc in poppy seeds aids sperm production

Other Uses

  • Apart from the medicinal use and health benefits of poppy seeds, they are also widely used for various culinary purposes. They can be sprinkled on baked goods such as bread and cakes, used as a sandwich spread along with butter and honey, used to add extra crunch to pasta and salads, as a flavoring for sauces and vegetable dishes, and in candies as well. Eastern countries use poppy seeds as a base for curries and chutneys.
  • Poppy seed extract is used as an ingredient in poppy syrup and cordials.
  • Poppy seeds make great bird food.
  • Due to its anodyne and expectorant properties, poppy seeds are used in cough syrups and poultices.
  • Oil made from poppy seed extract is used to make a number of drugs and medications.
  • Poppy seed infusions are used to treat earaches and toothaches

you can describe almost all of Southern California as being a sage scrub zone, but anyone who has traveled around here can tell you there is a big difference between Santa Barbara and San Diego, or between Los Angeles and San Bernardino.

Sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) is widely used by Mexican curandero/as (healers) for strengthening the immune system, reducing inflammation, and treating skin infections and irritations (much like European Artemisia). Mimulus is one of the Bach flower remedies. It is used to treat fearfulness, when there is a known source of fear. The FES brand of North American flower remedies has two monkeyflower essences, pink and red, both of which help to promote emotional courage and honesty.

As a resident of South Carolina (U.S.), I watched this vine take over roadways in days with high heat and humidity.  A food source beyond compare as it was imported to control erosion, and has now taken over the east coast from the mid Atlantic to Florida.  This stuff is everywhere and will overgrow everything.  Free food folks.


The flowers, leaves, and roots are all edible.  Young leaves are the most easy to chew as the larger the leaf the more course in texture.  If large leaves are used, cut out the heaviest part of the center vein.  Crispy fried leaves are a nice treat similar to chips.

The leaves, stem tips, roots and blooms can be eaten raw, steamed or boiled. Kudzu looks very similar to poison ivy – be sure you know how to distinguish between the two plants!! Kudzu also produces beautiful, purple-colored, grape-smelling blossoms that make delicious jelly, candy, and syrup. Some people have even used these to make homemade

wine. Survival at Home – Read more at: http://survivalathome.com/10-wild-plants-you-can-eat/

The strong stems are superior for making rope or cordage by stripping the leaves and steaming and pulling out the fibres.

Agroforestry Uses:

The plant can be used as a ground cover in a sunny position It can also be used to make a quick, temporary screen.Plants are very fast-growing and have an extensive root system which can be 1.8 metres deep. They are used for erosion control and for rebuilding depleted soils. A member of the Fabaceae, the plant also adds nitrogen to the soil through the actions of root bacteria

You are here: Home / Introduced, Invasive and Noxious Plants / Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants Results Printer-FriendlyPrinter-Friendly / Download
Introduced, Invasive, and Noxious Plants
NRCS Invasive Species Policy
Invasive Species Executive Order 13112

Missouri State-listed Noxious Weeds
12 records returned

Click on an accepted name below to view its PLANTS Profile with more information, and web links if available. Noxious weeds that are synonyms retain their noxious status, and are indented beneath the current PLANTS accepted name.

Revised Statues of Missouri. 2004. Insect pests and weeds (20 October 2003). Missouri Department of Agriculture.

Symbol Scientific Name Noxious Common Name State Noxious Status Native Status*
CASA3 Cannabis sativa L. marijuana NW L48 (I), HI (I), PR (I), CAN (I)
CANU4 Carduus nutans L. musk thistle NW L48 (I), CAN (I)
CIAR4 Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Canada thistle NW L48 (I), AK (I), CAN (I), GL (I), SPM (I)
COAR4 Convolvulus arvensis L. field bindweed NW L48 (I), HI (I), CAN (I)
DIFU2 Dipsacus fullonum L. common teasel NW L48 (I), CAN (I)
DILA4 Dipsacus laciniatus L. cut-leaved teasel NW L48 (I), CAN (I)
LYSA2 Lythrum salicaria L. purple loosestrife NW L48 (I), CAN (I), SPM (I)
ONAC Onopordum acanthium L. Scotch thistle NW L48 (I), CAN (W)
PUMOL Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S. Almeida L48 (I), HI (I)
PULO Puerarialobata (Willd.) Ohwi kudzu NW
ROMU Rosa multiflora Thunb.1 multiflora rose NW L48 (I), CAN (I)
SOHA Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers. johnsongrass NW L48 (I), HI (I), PR (I), CAN (I)

#OHLORD MO-Missouri Water Wars Planning-Michael Brown Native Plants Institute Walnut Park

Congressional tweet handles;congress tweets

People Killing for Water Global Water Wars Planning-

Michael Brown Native Plants Institute Walnut Park.

Throw us some seeds Congressional Black Caucus

Rep. Keith Ellison (@keithellison) of Minnesota
Rep. Chaka Fattah (@chakafattah) of Pennsylvania
Rep. Charlie Rangel (@cbrangel) of New York
Rep. Maxine Waters (@MaxineWaters) of California
Rep. Laura Richardson (@RepLRichardson) of California
Rep. Ed Towns (@oversightdems) of New York
Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (@JacksonLeeTX18) of Texas
Rep. Hank Johnson of Georgia (@rephankjohnson) of Georgia
Rep. Carolyn Kilpatrick (@repkilpatrick) of Michigan
Rep. Marcia Fudge (@marciafudge) of Ohio
Rep. Bobby Rush (@BobbyRushNews) of Illinois
Rep. Jesse Jackson (@jacksonjronline) of Illinois
Rep. Sheila Jackson Lee (@JacksonLee18) of Texas… campaign
Del. Eleanor Holmes Norton (@eleanornorton) of the District of Columbia
Sen. Roland Burris (@rolandwburris) of Illinois
Rep. Kendrick Meek (@KendrickMeek) of Florida

No Twitter account… yet
CBC Chairwoman Barbara Lee of California
Rep. Diane Watson of California
Rep. Bennie Thompson of Mississippi
Rep. Mel Watt of North Carolina
Majority Whip Jim Clyburn (@majoritywhip…hmm)
Rep. Alcee Hastings of Florida
Rep. Emanuel Cleaver of Missouri… excellent web site and no twitter account?
Rep. John Conyers of Michigan… the oldest member of the CBC
Rep. Corrine Brown of Florida
Rep. Al Green of Texas
Rep. Donald Payne of New Jersey
Rep. G.K. Butterfield of North Carolina
Rep. Artur Davis (@arturdavis was election site…) of Alabama
Rep. Bobby Scott of Virginia
Rep. Danny Davis (there is …@dannydaviswatch… however) of Illinois
Rep. Lacy Clay of Missouri
Rep. David Scott of Georgia
Rep. John Lewis of Georgia
Del. Donna Christensen of the Virgin Islands
Rep. Greg Meeks of New York
Rep. Sanford Bishop of Georgia
Rep. Elijah Cummings of Maryland
Rep. Andre Carson of Indiana… the youngest member of the CBC
Rep. Donna Edwards of Maryland
Rep. Gwen Moore (@repgwenmoore) old account… of Wisconsin

Rep Cedric Richmond,Rep Steve Scalise,Rep Garrett Graves,Rep Bennie Thompson Louisiana New Orleans

#OhLord- The Ferguson Effect

You are here:

Home / Plant Profile “Indigenous” refers to plants that are native to the Americas, i.e. weren’t brought over after European contact, circa A.D. 1492. #NativePlants


LICORICE Other Names: Acide Glycyrrhizique, Acide Glycyrrhizinique, Alcacuz, Alcazuz, Bois Doux, Bois Sucré, Can Cao, Chinese Licorice, Deglycyrrhized Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glabra, Glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra v...

Other Names:
Acide Glycyrrhizique, Acide Glycyrrhizinique, Alcacuz, Alcazuz, Bois Doux, Bois Sucré, Can Cao, Chinese Licorice, Deglycyrrhized Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glabra, Glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra v…

Many “licorice” products manufactured in the U.S. actually don’t contain any licorice. Instead, they contain anise oil, which has the characteristic smell and taste of “black licorice.”Licorice is also used in an herbal form called Shakuyaku-kanzo-to to increase fertility in women with a hormonal disorder called polycystic ovary syndrome. In combination with other herbs, licorice is also used to treat prostate cancer and the skin disorder known as eczema.

How does it work?

The chemicals contained in licorice are thought to decrease swelling, thin mucus secretions, decrease cough, and increase the chemicals in our body that heal ulcers.A perennial for zones 7-10. The source of most commercial licorice used in the making of candy, liquor, and as a sweetner for herb tea. Extracts flavour tobacco, beer, soft drinks and pharmaceutical products. Powerful anti-inflammatory properties effective for arthritis, gastritis, canker sores. Also a mild laxative. 3 year old roots are harvested in the autumn.


Seeds for plants use in Medicine Uses HERE


“Indigenous” refers to plants that are native to the Americas, i.e. weren’t brought over after European contact, circa A.D. 1492.

learning more about the parts of plants Michael Brown Native Plants Institute Walnut Park (what IS a tuber anyway?) check out more in-depth diagrams and definitions here: http://ag.arizona.edu/pubs/garden/mg/botany/plantparts.html

Plant guides for many of the above plants can be found on the USDA’s website: http://plants.usda.gov/java/



Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

Prairie, Purple Coneflower

Catalog #0300

(Echinacea purpurea) One of the very best for attracting butterflies and birds, this showy and easy-to-grow plant adds a flashy touch to the late summer landscape. Blooms heavily from July through September. Will tolerate clay soils. Plants reach 3-4′ tall. Perennial. Hardy to zone 4.


seeds germination

1/2″ Deep
10-20 Days
18-24″ Apart
Sun/Partial Shade



Green Thumb Tip
Sow seeds outdoors just before last frost. Coneflowers prefer well-drained average soil and tolerate heat and drought. Blooms the first year from seed if sown early

The Three Sisters

By 1100 AD, Native Americans had shifted towards a maize-based agricultural system, meaning that corn was the major staple food for the indigenous populations, including those in Louisiana. The Native Americans of this region were very adept farmers, and are most famous for their “Three Sisters” – squash, maize, and beans, which also dominated the agricultural economy at this time. These three crops were grown together, with the pole beans using the stalk of the corn for support, and the squash protecting the soil from weed invaders.


garden Cone flower

Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench For Mike Brown Lesson Plans

eastern purple coneflower
Image of Echinacea purpurea

H075 Black Sampson Coneflower ( Echinacea )

H075 Black Sampson Coneflower ( Echinacea )

H075 Black Sampson Coneflower (Echinacea )

Echinacea purpurea (eastern purple coneflower or purple coneflower) is a species of flowering plant in the genus Echinacea of the family Asteraceae.

LICORICEOther Names:Acide Glycyrrhizique, Acide Glycyrrhizinique, Alcacuz, Alcazuz, Bois Doux, Bois Sucré, Can Cao, Chinese Licorice, Deglycyrrhized Licorice, Gan Cao, Gan Zao, Glabra, Glycyrrhiza, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Glycyrrhiza glabra typica, Glycyrrhiza glabra v…

studies have shown that purple coneflower extracts do fight certain viruses and appear to stimulate the immune system to ward off bacterial infection

Laboratory findings have shown that purple coneflower is effective in healing superficial wounds

Herbalists usually recommend the use of Echinacea purpurea in boosting general immunity in the event of colds, flu, respiratory tract infections, and mild bladder infections. Echinacea purpurea or purple coneflower is usually administered in the form of dried root or herb, as tea, standardized tincture extract, powdered extract, tincture and as stabilized fresh extract.
Its beautiful pink-purple petal is edible, making it an excellent salad garnish.

 TRZ016 Bedda Nut Tree ( Terminalia bellirica )

TRZ016 Bedda Nut Tree ( Terminalia bellirica )

Terminalia bellirica seeds have an oil content of 40%, whose fatty-acid methyl ester meets all of the major biodiesel requirements in the USA (ASTM D 6751-02, ASTM PS 121-99), Germany (DIN V 51606) and European Union (EN 14214). The seeds are called bedda nuts.
PLEASE seek guidance if you do not know how to use these herbs properly!! I will not be held responsible for the improper ingestion or other improper uses of herbs or wild edible plants. This information is posted here for educational purposes, and is not intended to diagnose nor prescribe.
Information within this site is Void where prohibited by law.

Morel Mushrooms

Morchella esculenta

Morchella esculenta, (commonly known as common morel, morel, yellow morel, true morel, morel mushroom, and sponge morel)

Morel Mushrooms, also known as sponge, pinecone, and honeycomb mushrooms, are the most popular wild mushroom in Missouri and the United States. They range in color from tan to pale gray to yellow and the surface is covered with pits and ridges. They vary in size, but can grow to be 12 inches tall. Many nature lovers hunt for this fine fungus in mid April and early May. Keep a close eye on the lilac bushes – when they bloom, it is time to look for mushrooms. They grow in moist woodlands and river bottoms when the weather has been consistently warm and rainy. They are considered a delicacy and are sold commercially for a huge price. They are delicious fried, stewed, baked, creamed, or stuffed. Medicinal uses. Native Americans used the bark in infusion for treating colds, coughs, and dysentery. Tea

Stuffed Morels


1 doz. medium size morels
1can flaked crabmeat
1 egg, beaten
1/4 cup salad oil
2 tbl mayonaise
2 tbl chopped sweet onions
2 tsp fresh squeezed lemon juice
1/2 cup of seasoned bread crumbs
2 tbl melted butter or margarine


In a bowl, combine crabmeat, egg, salad oil, mayonaise, onions, lemon juice, and 1/4 of bread crumbs. Wash morels thouroughly but gently under running water. Fill morel “shells” with mixture. Combine remaining 1/4 cup of breadcrumbs with melted butter and sprinkle over mixture. Place the stuffed Morels in a pan. Bake in the oven for approximately 15 minutes at 375 degrees fahrenheit. Serve Hot.


Though morels are edible and delicious, there are many wild mushrooms that are not safe for humans to eat. Never try tasting a wild plant unless you are absolutely sure it is not poisonous or harmful to the body.

General Information
Symbol: ECPU
Group: Dicot
Family: Asteraceae
Duration: Perennial
Growth Habit: Forb/herb
Native Status: CAN I
L48 N
Fact Sheet (pdf) (doc)
Plant Guide (pdf) (doc)
Data Source and Documentation
About our new maps
Symbol: ECPU
Plants-NRCS Logos

Cultural uses: Purple coneflower has a long history of medicinal use. Native Americans used it as an antidote for snake bit and other venomous bites and stings. It was also used in a smoke treatment for headaches. Purple coneflower was used to calm toothaches and sore gums, and tea form it was drunk to treat colds, mumps, arthritis, and a blood purifier (often a euphemism for the treatment of venereal diseases). Further, it was used as a treatment for pain, indigestion, tumors, malaria and hemorrhoids. After a long period of disregard, purple coneflower has come back into vogue in recent years. It is used primarily as an immune-system booster and it has been used as a treatment for skin diseases such as eczema and psoriasis, boils and wounds, burns, cold sores and genital herpes. It is also recommended for use to treat bronchitis, tonsillitis, meningitis, tuberculosis, abscesses, whooping cough, arthritis and ear infections.:
lower 48 status L48 Alaska status AK Hawaii status HI Puerto Rico status PR Virgin Islands status VI Navassa Island NAV Canada status CAN Greenland status GL Saint Pierre and Michelon status SPM North America NA
click on a thumbnail to view an image, or see all the Echinacea thumbnails at the Plants Gallery

©Larry Allain. USGS National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC).

©Thomas G. Barnes.

©Thomas G. Barnes. Barnes, T.G., and S.W. Francis. 2004. Wildflowers and ferns of Kentucky. University Press of Kentucky.

Steve Hurst. Provided by ARS Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory. United States, IL, Highland Park.

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden. United States, LA. Usage Requirements.
no standard photo

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden. United States, LA. Usage Requirements.

©Jeff McMillian. Provided by Almost Eden. United States, LA. Usage Requirements.

©William S. Justice. Provided by Smithsonian Institution, Department of Botany.

Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 vols. Charles Scribner’s Sons, New York. Vol. 3: 475. Provided by Kentucky Native Plant Society. Scanned by Omnitek Inc.


Symbol     Scientific Name
BRPU15   Brauneria purpurea (L.) Britton
ECPUA    Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench var. arkansana Steyerm.
RUPU9    Rudbeckia purpurea L.
Order Asterales
Family Asteraceae ⁄ Compositae – Aster family
Genus Echinacea Moench – purple coneflower
Species Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench – eastern purple coneflower

Legal Status
Threatened and Endangered Information:
This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Common names are from state and federal lists.
purple coneflower
purple coneflower
Probably Extirpated

Related Links
More Accounts and Images
ARS Germplasm Resources Information Network (ECPU)

Native: (links to other web resources are provided for some distributions)

Integrated Taxonomic Information System (BRPU15)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ECPU)
Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ECPUA)
Kemper Center for Home Gardening (ECPU)

Garden Uses

Excellent, long-blooming flower for massing in the border, meadow, native plant garden, naturalized area, wildflower garden or part shade area of woodland garden. Often massed with black-eyed Susans (rudbeckias).

Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center Native Plant Information Network (ECPU)


A popular perennial with smooth, 2-5 ft. stems and long-lasting, lavender flowers. Rough, scattered leaves that become small toward the top of the stem. Flowers occur singly atop the stems and have domed, purplish-brown, spiny centers and drooping, lavender rays. An attractive perennial with purple (rarely white), drooping rays surrounding a spiny, brownish central disk.

The genus name is from the Greek echino, meaning hedgehog, an allusion to the spiny, brownish central disk. The flowers of Echinacea species are used to make an extremely popular herbal tea, purported to help strengthen the immune system; an extract is also available in tablet or liquid form in pharmacies and health food stores. Often cultivated, Purple Coneflower is a showy, easily grown garden plant.

NPIN: Native Plant Database

  • Mikania scandens
  • Mikania scandens is a species of flowering plant in the aster family, Asteraceae. Its common names include climbing hempvine, climbing hempweed, and louse-plaster.
Climbing Hempweed Mikania cordata(Burm. f.) RobinsonFamily:Asteraceae Synonym (s):Eupatorium cordatumBurm. f.,Mikania volubilisWilld.,Mikania scandens auct.non L. Vernacular name (s):Assamlata,Refuzi Lata,Tarulata,Toofainna Lata(Bengali); ClimbingHempweed, Heartleaf Hempvine (English);Assam Ludi,Sheikh Mujib Atak(Chakma);AssamLata,Debaloti,Khainkhambo,Mrakhawbow,Ripujinui,Rifuji Nuiyee,Shushelanway,Wainya(Marma);Bainyachu(Khumi);Asamlata(Tonchonga);Athisaheph(Mandi) and Rajjamara,Dukhelaki(Tripura{

Rich source of vitamins A and C, also contains vitamin B.

This species is also used in the treatment of bleeding from cut, cutting wound, bullet wound, foot
mud sore, gastric ulcer, jaundice, scabies and septic sore (Uddin, 2006); dyspepsia, dysentery,
gastric ulcers, haemorrhages from cuts and wounds, itches and poultiching wound (Ghani, 1998);
gastric pain (Partha and Hossain, 2007) and dysentery, dyspepsia, gastric ulcers, to stop and cure
haemorrhages from cut and bruises, itches and wounds (Yusuf
et al., 2009).
Other uses:
Leaves are used as vegetables. It is also used as a remedy for snakebite and scorpion
Conservation status in the study area:
Commonly found in the local areas. No measure taken by the local people to conserve this species. In secondary forests, the species becomes as an alien invasive species by suppressing the growth and development of native regenerating species. Market potential/Domestication potential/Plantation potential/any pharmaceutical use:
It can be
domesticated as food plan
Leaf paste is applied over the
wounded area to stop haemorrhage.
Khumi, Marma and Tripura Mikania scandens

Height: Up to 15 feet
Deciduous, climbing, herbaceous vine, often blanketing nearby vegetation; whitish-pink flowers and triangular leaves. Habitat/Range: Perimeter of lakes, swamps, wet woodlands, freshwater marshes, stream banks in the Atlantic coastal plain.

Native American Ethnobotany (University of Michigan – Dearborn) (ECPU)
USF Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants (ECPU)
University of Tennessee Herbarium (Distribution) (ECPU)
University of Wisconsin – Stevens Point Freckmann Herbarium (ECPU)
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ATTRA-Echinacea as an Alternative Crop (ECPU)
FL-University of Florida Cooperative Extension Service (ECPU)
Forestry Images (ECPU)
HerbMed (ECPU)
Herbal Information Resources (ECPU)
KS-Great Plains Nature Center (ECPU)
MI-Department of Natural Resources (ECPU)
MO-MissouriPlants.com (ECPU)
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NC-North Carolina State University Perennial Flowers (ECPU)
NC-North Carolina State University Plant Fact Sheet (ECPU)
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National Center For Contemporary And Alternative Medicine (NIH) (ECPU)
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TX-Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center (ECPU)
TX-Texas A&M Horticulture (ECPU)

SF085 Fireweed ( Epilobium Angustifolium )
A versatile perennial that offers beauty as well as value as a medicinal herb. The perennial has slender upright spikes of flowers in shades of rosy pink in the months of June to September. It gets its name from the fact that it is often the first weed to colonize in an area that has been destroyed by fire.
Other common names include: Willow Herb, Rosebay Willowherb, and Yanagiran. Native Americans used the Willowherb plant as a good source of vitamin C and pro-vitamin A. Medicinally, the herb seeds can also be grown to relieve inflammation, draw out infection in wounds, and to treat burns.
Fireweed is very attractive to bees and butterflies, and Fireweed honey has become quite sought after. Fireweed seeds do best with a cold/moist treatment for 4 weeks prior to planting, or directly sow the herb seeds outdoors in the fall.

People Killing for Water Global Water Wars Planning-Michael Brown Native Plants Institue Walnut Park

People Killing for Water Global Water Wars Planning.

#OhLord- The Ferguson Effect  go fundme

Native plants are plants endemic (indigenous) to a given area in geologic time. This includes plants that have developed, occur naturally, or existed for many years in an area (e.g. trees, flowers, grasses, and other plants).

Some native plants have adapted to very limited, unusual environments or very harsh climates or exceptional soil conditions. Although some types of plants for these reasons exist only within a very limited range (endemism), others can live in diverse areas or by adaptation to different surroundings. Research has found that insects depend on native plants.[1]

An alternative, but potentially conflicting, usage is to describe plants (and animals) that are indigenous to a geographical area, even if they are known to have self-introduced in historical times, e.g. the Silvereye (Zosterops lateralis) of New Zealand, which was first recorded in the 19th century.

Wild Ones – leading the natural landscaping movement …
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California Native Plant Society: CNPS
California Native Plant Society
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North Carolina Native Plant Society: Home
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The native plant societies in your area can help you find answers to your questions. Native Plant Societies … Wildflower Association of Michigan 15232 24 Mile Rd … New Hampshire Chapter, New England Wild Flower Society 8 Boulters Cove

Native plant resources for the Pacific Northwest – King County
King County
e-mail; Facebook; Twitter; del.icio.us; Digg … To offer a suggestion or report an error on the Natural Resources and Parks’ website, please contact Fred Bentler, webmaster. … This interactive guide features a native plant selector, images of … Established in 1984 with support of the Seattle Garden Club.

Native Plants of Indiana | Indiana Wildlife Federation
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Common Sense Conservation Since 1938; Join our social networks | Facebook Twitter pinterest. To promote the … Native Indiana plants are best suited for the soil and weather conditions in our area. As a result … The list of native plant life in Indiana is long. Some plants … Wild Geranium, Geranium maculatum — April-June
Chapters – Florida Native Plant Society
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Purpose is to further appreciation and conservation of Virginia’s native plants and habitats.

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See Tweets about #summercolor on Twitter. … The annual flowers just arrived at the club, let the planting process begin! …. Rockin’ the Natural “Red” today.
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We’ve got Naked Ladies in the yard, here are some beauties! Jealous? #nature #gardening #nakedladies https://instagram.com/p/6FWFo8S_2g/. 0 retweets 1 …
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The latest Tweets from Instyle Flowers (@InstyleFlowers). The South … Defending, celebrating and restoring our greatest natural resource: the #ocean. More at …
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Jun 17, 2014 – … yesterday when registration for 11th World Flower Show opened. … A Natural Selection · Midhurst Flower Club · WorldFlowerShow 2014 …
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Florida Native Plant Society

Dedicated to the preservation, conservation, and restoration of the native plants and native plant communities of Florida

Bullying Dominican Republic Free Labor Haitian Hamitic

Mason-Dixon Line Prison Industry Preferred young males 15-25

Hemp Holds Highest Hopes for Helping Haiti Rebuild Economy and Environment As Haiti rebuilds its rural areas, value-added agriculture must play the central role.  There is a great need for sustainable and socially acceptable agricultural systems.  The foundation could include a the most versatile and useful crops known to humanity – namely industrial hemp and closely related  medical marijuana.  Compared to any alternative, these will provide much higher value per acre, while rebuilding the land and rural economy.

Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land in developing countries, by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.

Efforts at such expulsion have been made in Maryland, Virginia and South Carolina,

and all have failed, just because the black man as a freeman is a useful member of society. To drive him away, and thus deprive the South of his labor, would be as absurd and monstrous as for a man to cut off his right arm, the better to enable himself to work.


  • Many Africans resisted the slave trade, but some participated.
  • Rulers of Asante, Dahomey, Oyo, and Benin played an active role in the Transatlantic Trade
  • Europeans needed permission to build trading posts
  • In return they paid high prices to African leaders
    • Firearms, rum, textiles, etc.
  • Other reasons African Rulers became involved in trading their own people.
  • Wanted control of trade routes
  • Greed and willingness to exploit neighbours
  • Defend themselves
  • To do this they needed weapons. To get weapons they needed to raid neighbours to get captives.
  • Families were torn apart
  • Communities wiped out
  • Entire nations destroyed.

The Captives

  • The main captives came from West Africa.
  • Captured:
    • They would fight to get free.
      • Many died
      • Survivors were chained and marched to the coast
    • Some journey’s lasted weeks, other months.
    • Trading took place on the travel
    • Less than half survived to the trading posts.
  • Imprisoned:
    • Most were held in dungeons of European trading factories.
    • They waited weeks or months to be placed on ships.
    • At the factory captives would be inspected.
    • 5% would die during the stay.
    • Preferred young males 15-25
    • Females and males between 8-15 or 25-35 went for lower prices.

The French

  • The French joined the trade in Africans to exploit their resources in the Caribbean.
  • They needed workers so they took over the Dutch trading posts on the West African Coast
  • Between 1540-1800’s

    • Ships delivered 1.6 million enslaved Africans to Martinique, St. Christopher, Guadeloupe, and Saint Dominque (Haiti)

New France

  • (now Quebec)
  • 1st Enslaved African was a young boy- Oliver LeJeune.
  • Arrived in 1628 and became the servant to Father Paul LeJeune
  • Eventually they too needed more workers.
  • Government officials and wealthy merchants had domestic servants
  • 1759- 1132 enslaved Africans were living in New France
  • When Britain gained control they agreed that enslaved Africans would be under British rule.


  • They needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America & in the Caribbean. In the 16th century, Charles I issued the 1st Asiento, a license to import slaves into Spanish Colonies. This gave Spain a monopoly on the slave trade.
  • Spain did not have it’s own trading posts.
  • They sold asientos to foreign merchants and financers.
  • The winning bidders had the rights to sell Africans into slavery through the Spanish Empire.
  • As a result the enslaved Africans were being defined in terms of their labor potential. For the first time Africans were being valued in terms of their worth by means of a peca de India.
  • Although the definition changed overtime, all individuals who passed inspection between the ages of 15 and 25 were worth one peca de India each.
  • 1492- Christopher Columbus claimed the Caribbean Island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and Dominican Republic, for Spain.

  • This was disastrous for the indigenous people that lived there.
  • He exploited the local Tainos people. They tried to resist but they could not because of the fire arms.
  • Most of the population was slaughtered.
  • By early 1500’s violence and European disease wiped out the Tainos.
  • This repeated in all other areas where the Spainish looked for gold and silver.
  • Spaniards needed workers for mining and soon turned to Africans


SAN PEDRO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – FEBRUARY 29: A Haitian child plays on a batey on February 29, 2012 in San Pedro, Dominican Republic. A batey is the name given to communities that reside inside of sugar plantations in the Dominican Republic that are comprised mainly of Haitians and Dominicans of Haitian descent. Living and working conditions inside the bateyes are often extremely impoverished, with limited access to health care, no running water or sanitary facilities and a lack of electricity. For decades Haitians have been fleeing the turmoil of their country to come and work as seasonal workers in the sugar cane industry in the Dominican Republic, with many staying on permanently in the country. It is estimated that somewhere between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Haitians are currently living Dominican Republic. Due to a climate of discrimination based on ethnic origins and a fear of a Haitian influx, the Dominican government has adopted policies that make it difficult to impossible for many Haitians to live a normal life in the country. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)

The first Jewish settlement

In 1492, the first Jew to ever set foot in Haiti was Luis de Torres, an interpreter for Christopher Columbus. After Haiti was taken over and colonized by the French in 1633, many Dutch Jews (whom many were Marrano) emigrated from Brazil in 1634 and became employees of the French sugar plantations and further developed the trade. In 1683, the Jews were expelled from Haiti and all of the other French colonies, due to the Code Noir (Black Code), which not only restricted the activities of free Negroes, but forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism (it included a provision that all slaves must be baptized and instructed in the Roman Catholic religion), and in turn ordered all the Jews out of France’s colonies. However, despite the Black Code, a limited number of Jews remained in French trading companies as leading officials, including foreign citizens (Dutch, Danish, or English) or holders of special residence permits (lettres patentes). These Jews specialized in agricultural plantations. Portuguese Jews from Bordeaux and Bayonne settled mainly in the southern part of Haiti (Jacmel, Jérémie, Léogâne, Les Cayes, Petit-Goâve, and Port-au-Prince) and Jews from Curaçao settled in the northern part (Cap-Haitien, and Saint Louis).[2][3]

The Dominican Republic’s French Dutch Jews Brazil a anti-Hamitic Negus a Tortured Relationship With Its Haitian Hamitic nationals

The Dominican Republic’s Tortured Relationship With Its Haitian Minority

Here’s Why Hemp Should be Your New Favorite Plant http://www.care2.com/greenliving/heres-why-hemp-should-be-your-new-favorite-plant.html

Abortion or Prison Industry

Self Policing for Tax Credit palestine_flag_waving

NOI and self-Policing; false flags and friendly fire

History Is A Weapon

The “growing unrest in the cities” must have been a reference to the black uprisings that had taken place—and showed the link—between the war abroad and poverty at home. In the wake of the Supreme Court decision, pro-slavery activists declared their right to “choose” to own slaves.

When Nixon took office, he too tried to persuade the public that protest would not affect him. But he almost went berserk when one lone pacifist picketed the White House.

They have enforced inhuman laws…. They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots, they have drowned uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion…. They have robbed us of our rice fields, our mines, our forests, and our raw materials… .

They have invented numerous unjustifiable taxes and reduced our people, especially our peasantry, to a state of extreme poverty. …

…from the end of last year, to the beginning of this year . . . more than two million of our fellow-citizens died of starvation. .. .

The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

Drug War

One sign that the ideas of the antiwar movement had taken hold in the American public was that juries became more reluctant to convict

Most of the antiwar action came from ordinary GIs, and most of these came from lower-income groups—white, black, Native American, Chinese, and Chicano. (Chicanos back home were demonstrating by the thousands against the war.)

One of the great sports figures of the nation, Muhammad Ali, the black boxer and heavyweight champion, refused to serve in what he called a “white man’s war”; boxing authorities took away his title as champion.

Martin Luther King, Jr., spoke out in 1967 at Riverside Church in New York:

Somehow this madness must cease. We must stop now. I speak as a child of God and brother to the suffering poor of Vietnam. I speak for those whose land is being laid waste, whose homes are being destroyed, whose culture is being subverted. I speak for the poor of America who are paying the double price of smashed hopes at home and death and corruption in Vietnam. I speak as a citizen of the world, for the world as it stands aghast at the path we have taken. I speak as an American to the leaders of my own nation. The great initiative in this war is ours. The initiative to stop it must be ours.

Dan Berrigan wrote a


We say: killing is disorder, life and gentleness and community and unselfishness is the only order we recognize. For the sake of that order, we risk our liberty, our good name. The time is past when good men can remain silent, when obedience can segregate men from public risk, when the poor can die without defense.

Map Gov J Brown selling people

US Slave trade 2015  Under Dred Scott, owners could choose to buy, sell or under most circumstances kill their property.

The one woman among the Catonsville Nine, Mary Moylan, a former nun, also refused to surrender to the FBI. She was never found. Writing from underground, she reflected on her experience and how she came to it: David Barrow lamented the “strange doctrine of the Christian church that forbids ministers to condemn sin simply because it is authorized by the government.”

… We had all known we were going to jail, so we all had our toothbrushes. I was just exhausted. I took my little box of clothes and stuck it under the cot and climbed into bed. Now all the women in the Baltimore County jail were black-I think there was only one white. The women were waking me up and saying, “Aren’t you going to cry?” I said, “What about?” They said, “You’re in jail.” And I said, “Yeah, I knew I’d be here.” . ..I was sleeping between two of these women, and every morning I’d wake up and they’d be leaning on their elbows watching me. They’d say, “You slept all night.” And they couldn’t believe it. They were good. We had good times…

When I came home from Africa I moved to Washington, and had to deal with the scene there and the insanity and brutality of the cops and the type of life that was led by most of the citizens of that city—70 percent black. …

And then Vietnam, and the napalm and the defoliants, and the bombings. …


The poet Robert Lowell, invited to a White House function, refused to come. Arthur Miller, also invited, sent a telegram to the White House: “When the guns boom, the arts die.” Singer Eartha Kitt was invited to a luncheon on the White House lawn and shocked all those present by speaking out, in the presence of the President’s wife, against the war. A teenager, called to the White House to accept a prize, came and criticized the war. In Hollywood, local artists erected a 60-foot Tower of Protest on Sunset Boulevard. At the National Book Award ceremonies in New York, fifty authors and publishers walked out on a speech by Vice-President Humphrey in a display of anger at his role in the war. 

In mid-1965, in McComb, Mississippi, young blacks who had just learned that a classmate of theirs was killed in Vietnam distributed a leaflet:

No Mississippi Negroes should be fighting in Viet Nam for the White man’s freedom, until all the Negro People are free in Mississippi.Negro boys should not honor the draft here in Mississippi. Mothers should encourage their sons not to go. …

No one has a right to ask us to risk our lives and kill other Colored People in Santo Domingo and Viet Nam, so that the White American can get richer.

private-prisons-mapGANG RELATED

The French newspaper Le Monde reported that in four months, 109 soldiers of the first air cavalry division were charged with refusal to fight. “A common sight,” the correspondent for Le Monde wrote, “is the black soldier, with his left fist clenched in defiance of a war he has never considered his own.

” Regarding the radical nature of those who promote slavery, Abraham Lincoln wrote, “The question recurs, what will satisfy them? This and this only: cease to call slavery wrong and join them in calling it right. And this must be done thoroughly—done in acts as well as in words. Silence will not be tolerated—we must place ourselves avowedly with them. Holding as they do, that slavery is morally right and socially elevating…” ALEC-NoPlaceforKids-RecurringMaltreatmentMap

Workers subcontracted by Shell Oil Company clean up an oil spill from an abandoned Shell Petroleum Development Company well in Oloibiri, Niger Delta. Wellhead 14 was closed in 1977 but has been leaking for years, and in June of 2004 it finally released an oil spill of over 20,000 barrels of crude oil.

Workers subcontracted by Shell Oil Company clean up an oil spill from an abandoned Shell Petroleum Development Company well in Oloibiri, Niger Delta. Wellhead 14 was closed in 1977 but has been leaking for years, and in June of 2004 it finally released an oil spill of over 20,000 barrels of crude oil.

slaver on abortion

David Barrow lamented the “strange doctrine of the Christian church

that forbids ministers to condemn sin simply because it is authorized by the government.”

Dred Scott said Blacks were nonpersons.

“All men are created equal.

They are endowed by their Creator with certain inalienable rights; among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness.” Just as the Americans in 1776 had listed their grievances against the English King, the Vietnamese listed their complaints against French rule:

They have enforced inhuman laws…. They have built more prisons than schools. They have mercilessly slain our patriots, they have drowned uprisings in rivers of blood. They have fettered public opinion…. They have robbed us of our rice fields, our mines, our forests, and our raw materials… .They have invented numerous unjustifiable taxes and reduced our people, especially our peasantry, to a state of extreme poverty. …

…from the end of last year, to the beginning of this year . . . more than two million of our fellow-citizens died of starvation. .. .

The whole Vietnamese people, animated by a common purpose, are determined to fight to the bitter end against any attempt by the French colonialists to reconquer their country.

The U.S. Defense Department study of the Vietnam war, intended to be “top secret” but released to the public by Daniel Ellsberg and Anthony Russo in the famous Pentagon Papers case, described Ho Chi Minh’s work: .. . Ho had built the Viet Minh into the only Vietnam-wide political organization capable of effective resistance to either the Japanese or the French. He was the only Vietnamese wartime leader with a national following, and he assured himself wider fealty among the Vietnamese people when in August-September, 1945, he overthrew the Japanese . .. established the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, and staged receptions for in-coming allied occupation forces.. .. For a few weeks in September, 1945, Vietnam was—for the first and only time in its modern history—free of foreign domination, and united from north to south under Ho Chi Minh. .. .

Between October 1945 and February 1946, Ho Chi Minh wrote eight letters to President Truman, reminding him of the self-determination promises of the Atlantic Charter. One of the letters was sent both to Truman and to the United Nations:

I wish to invite attention of your Excellency for strictly humanitarian reasons to following matter. Two million Vietnamese died of starvation during winter of 1944 and spring 1945 because of starvation policy of French who seized and stored until it controlled all available rice. … Three- fourths of cultivated land was flooded in summer 1945, which was followed by a severe drought; of normal harvest five-sixths was lost. … Many people are starving. .. . Unless great world powers and international relief organizations bring us immediate assistance we face imminent catastrophe…Southeast Asia, especially Malaya and Indonesia, is the principal world source of natural rubber and tin, and a producer of petroleum and other strategically important commodities. … Earlier in 1963, Kennedy’s Undersecretary of State, U. Alexis Johnson, was speaking before the Economic Club of Detroit:

What is the attraction that Southeast Asia has exerted for centuries on the great powers flanking it on all sides? Why is it desirable, and why is it important? First, it provides a lush climate, fertile soil, rich natural resources, a relatively sparse population in most areas, and room to expand. The countries of Southeast Asia produce rich exportable surpluses such as rice, rubber, teak, corn, tin, spices, oil, and many others. ..Truman never replied.

What is CIVILITER MORTUUS? Civilly dead ; dead in the view of the law. Blue And Red ACA Compared


What is The Affordable Care Act? in Blue ACA

Obama Care Dental (ACA)
Obama Care Dental (ACA)

and RED

What is The ACA In red -Regulatory Environment: CCA is currently accredited by the American Corrections Association (ACA).

Chris Christie’s Texas horror: Meet the scandalous prison company he’s long promoted

A corporation Christie’s lobbied for and long pushed runs notorious detention center

“Inadequate medical care, poor nutrition, lack of access to legal services, absence of meaningful programming, and a willful neglect of those who are imprisoned there plague the Polk detention center.”

The facility is used by the federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement agency to house immigrant detainees who are seeking asylum in the United States.

 Noting Christie’s “long and very close relationship with Community Education Centers,” the private company running the facility for ICE, one critic told Salon, “I think it’s time people start asking questions, because this company’s practices are not confined to New Jersey.”

The hunger strike at the detention center in Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, now enters its sixth month. Meanwhile, California Governor Jerry Brown is fighting federal court orders to reduce the state’s prison population. And this week, inmates in California state prisons resumed hunger strikes initiated in 2011 by detainees in indefinite solitary confinement — some for over three decades.


Ronald Brockmeyer, the municipal judge in Ferguson, has resigned less than a week after a scathing federal report called his court little more than an ATM for the city. And the Missouri Supreme Court has ordered all Ferguson municipal court cases transferred to Judge Roy L. Richter of the Court of Appeals for the Eastern District of Missouri.

BLUE ACA Obamacare Helps Ex-Convicts. That’s A Good Thing!

The Affordable Care Act (ACA), officially called The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) and sometimes called ObamaCare, is a US law that reforms both the healthcare and health insurance industries in America.


Red ACA Regulatory Environment: CCA is currently accredited by the American Corrections Association (ACA), a private non-governmental organization providing self-created standards. There is currently is no oversight or regulation of the organization beyond its own staff. Eighty-five percent of CCA facilities are accredited by ACA.

Your members of Congress have the power to end this “bed quota” by denying federal funding for the initiative in the FY15 Federal Budget.

You can take a stand in solidarity with detained immigrants at http://afsc.org/action/take-action-end-immigrant-detention-quotas. Please call your members of Congress TODAY and ask them to tell their counterparts on Appropriations Committees to eliminate the bed quota.

Revenue: $1.77 billion, 100% of which comes from taxpayers via government contracts (2012)


Parent Company: Corrections Corporation of America (CCA)


First Tier Subsidiaries:
CCA of Tennessee, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company

CCA TRS, LLC, a Maryland limited liability company
CCA (UK) Ltd., a United Kingdom corporation

Second Tier Subsidiaries:
CCA International, LLC, a Delaware limited liability company

Technical and Business Institute of America, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company
TransCor America, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company
TransCor Puerto Rico, Inc., a Puerto Rico corporation
CCA Health Services, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company
Prison Realty Management, LLC, a Tennessee limited liability company
(Source: CCA 10-K, 2/27/2013)

Location(s): Arizona, California, Colorado, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Idaho, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Minnesota, Mississippi, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Tennessee, Texas


In the American political context African Americans have the greatest legacy because of their crusade for freedom and civil rights. Unlike Anglo-Americans, African Americans were barred from society for no other reason than their skin color, but their fight for freedom forced Americans to define themselves and how to protect their rights in a free society. The American system has been touted by historians such as Gordon Wood as being a radical departure from the British model of government. Barbara Clark Smith argued that the American Revolution was not a radical event because it failed to meet the egalitarian principles set forth by the revolutionary intellectuals. Wood’s response was that the radical nature of the Revolution was not seen until well after the war and subsequent nation building, because those principles led to emancipation and universal suffrage. Smith’s point is important to note because the immediacy created by the concept of “radical” was not met during the Revolutionary period. For the enslaved their lot in life had not changed with Treaty of Paris or the Constitution of the United States. The Constitution, previous to the passage of the 14th Amendment, did not provide a definition of citizenship. It was just assumed that an American citizen was a white male landowner. The reality of this situation was that racial discrimination caused many to turn their backs on egalitarianism for a racially bifurcated society. At this point, African Americans, free and enslaved, had to collectively speak out against this discrimination and remind Anglo-Americans of their egalitarian principles. The greatest legacy of Civil Rights Movement was that it forced America to abide by its altruistic principles. African Americans forced the definition of citizenship and created greater protections for American civil rights.

CCA Announces New $205 Million Investment In Correctional Center In Ariz.
Revenue: $1.77 billion, 100% of which comes from taxpayers via government contracts (2012)