Mason-Dixon Line Prison Industry Preferred young males 15-25
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Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land in developing countries, by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
and all have failed, just because the black man as a freeman is a useful member of society. To drive him away, and thus deprive the South of his labor, would be as absurd and monstrous as for a man to cut off his right arm, the better to enable himself to work.
- Many Africans resisted the slave trade, but some participated.
- Rulers of Asante, Dahomey, Oyo, and Benin played an active role in the Transatlantic Trade
- Europeans needed permission to build trading posts
- In return they paid high prices to African leaders
- Firearms, rum, textiles, etc.
- Other reasons African Rulers became involved in trading their own people.
- Wanted control of trade routes
- Greed and willingness to exploit neighbours
- Defend themselves
- To do this they needed weapons. To get weapons they needed to raid neighbours to get captives.
- Families were torn apart
- Communities wiped out
- Entire nations destroyed.
- The main captives came from West Africa.
- They would fight to get free.
- Many died
- Survivors were chained and marched to the coast
- Some journey’s lasted weeks, other months.
- Trading took place on the travel
- Less than half survived to the trading posts.
- They would fight to get free.
- Most were held in dungeons of European trading factories.
- They waited weeks or months to be placed on ships.
- At the factory captives would be inspected.
- 5% would die during the stay.
- Preferred young males 15-25
- Females and males between 8-15 or 25-35 went for lower prices.
- The French joined the trade in Africans to exploit their resources in the Caribbean.
- They needed workers so they took over the Dutch trading posts on the West African Coast
Ships delivered 1.6 million enslaved Africans to Martinique, St. Christopher, Guadeloupe, and Saint Dominque (Haiti)
- (now Quebec)
- 1st Enslaved African was a young boy- Oliver LeJeune.
- Arrived in 1628 and became the servant to Father Paul LeJeune
- Eventually they too needed more workers.
- Government officials and wealthy merchants had domestic servants
- 1759- 1132 enslaved Africans were living in New France
- When Britain gained control they agreed that enslaved Africans would be under British rule.
- They needed slaves to work on their plantations in South America & in the Caribbean. In the 16th century, Charles I issued the 1st Asiento, a license to import slaves into Spanish Colonies. This gave Spain a monopoly on the slave trade.
- Spain did not have it’s own trading posts.
- They sold asientos to foreign merchants and financers.
- The winning bidders had the rights to sell Africans into slavery through the Spanish Empire.
- As a result the enslaved Africans were being defined in terms of their labor potential. For the first time Africans were being valued in terms of their worth by means of a peca de India.
- Although the definition changed overtime, all individuals who passed inspection between the ages of 15 and 25 were worth one peca de India each.
1492- Christopher Columbus claimed the Caribbean Island of Hispaniola, now Haiti and Dominican Republic, for Spain.
- This was disastrous for the indigenous people that lived there.
- He exploited the local Tainos people. They tried to resist but they could not because of the fire arms.
- Most of the population was slaughtered.
- By early 1500’s violence and European disease wiped out the Tainos.
- This repeated in all other areas where the Spainish looked for gold and silver.
- Spaniards needed workers for mining and soon turned to Africans
SAN PEDRO, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – FEBRUARY 29: A Haitian child plays on a batey on February 29, 2012 in San Pedro, Dominican Republic. A batey is the name given to communities that reside inside of sugar plantations in the Dominican Republic that are comprised mainly of Haitians and Dominicans of Haitian descent. Living and working conditions inside the bateyes are often extremely impoverished, with limited access to health care, no running water or sanitary facilities and a lack of electricity. For decades Haitians have been fleeing the turmoil of their country to come and work as seasonal workers in the sugar cane industry in the Dominican Republic, with many staying on permanently in the country. It is estimated that somewhere between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Haitians are currently living Dominican Republic. Due to a climate of discrimination based on ethnic origins and a fear of a Haitian influx, the Dominican government has adopted policies that make it difficult to impossible for many Haitians to live a normal life in the country. (Photo by Spencer Platt/Getty Images)
The first Jewish settlement
In 1492, the first Jew to ever set foot in Haiti was Luis de Torres, an interpreter for Christopher Columbus. After Haiti was taken over and colonized by the French in 1633, many Dutch Jews (whom many were Marrano) emigrated from Brazil in 1634 and became employees of the French sugar plantations and further developed the trade. In 1683, the Jews were expelled from Haiti and all of the other French colonies, due to the Code Noir (Black Code), which not only restricted the activities of free Negroes, but forbade the exercise of any religion other than Roman Catholicism (it included a provision that all slaves must be baptized and instructed in the Roman Catholic religion), and in turn ordered all the Jews out of France’s colonies. However, despite the Black Code, a limited number of Jews remained in French trading companies as leading officials, including foreign citizens (Dutch, Danish, or English) or holders of special residence permits (lettres patentes). These Jews specialized in agricultural plantations. Portuguese Jews from Bordeaux and Bayonne settled mainly in the southern part of Haiti (Jacmel, Jérémie, Léogâne, Les Cayes, Petit-Goâve, and Port-au-Prince) and Jews from Curaçao settled in the northern part (Cap-Haitien, and Saint Louis).
The Dominican Republic’s French Dutch Jews Brazil a anti-Hamitic Negus a Tortured Relationship With Its Haitian Hamitic nationals
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