Enslaved Swimmers and Divers

#SimoneManuel ‘s Olympic gold medal in swimming History of slave african divers“our men had very great toil in the capture of Africans who were swimming,
for they dived like cormorants”History of slave African diver’s swimming mimics the cormorants bird fishing,for a living-pearl diving as slaves.

When European invaders came to North and South America in the 1600s, most of them didn’t know how to swim, because people had stopped swimming in Europe by that time. Some boys did swim a little, especially poor boys who had more freedom, but they didn’t know the crawl stroke and could only dog-paddle. Girls probably didn’t get much chance to swim.

To do jobs that required swimming, these Europeans first forced Native Americans to swim for them, and then forced West African people to come to North and South America as slaves to swim. Some of these West African people worked as pearl divers off the coast of Venezuela.

A Massachusetts law of 1773 said that people couldn’t go swimming on Sundays (because they should go to church instead), so at least some people knew how to swim. About the same time, Benjamin Franklin knew how to swim.



March 2006 !e Journal of American History 1327
Enslaved Swimmers and Divers in the
Atlantic World
Kevin Dawson
Long before a single coastal or interior West African was enslaved and cargoed off to toil the length of his days under the skies of the New World, many had become adept swimmers and underwater divers. West Africans often grew up along riverbanks, near lakes, or close to the ocean. In those waterways, many became proficient swimmers, incorporating this skill into their work and recreation. When carried to the Americas, slaves brought this ability with them, where it helped shape generations of bondpeople’s occupational and leisure activities. From the age of discovery up through the nineteenth century, the swimming and underwater
diving abilities of people of African descent often surpassed those of Europeans and
their descendants. Indeed, most whites, including sailors, probably could not swim. To reduce drowning deaths, some philanthropists advocated that sailors and others learn to swim. In 1838 the Sailor’s Magazine, a New York City missionary magazine, published the inscription on a city placard titled “Swimming.” It read: “For want of knowledge of this noble art thousands are annually sacrificed, and every fresh victim calls more strongly upon the best feelings of those who have the power to draw the attention of such persons as may be likely to require this art, to the simple fact, that there is no difficulty in floating or swimming.” Similarly, !eodorus Bailey Myers Mason’s 1879 pamphlet, !e Preservation of Life at Sea, claimed, “!e great majority of people cannot swim, and strange as it may seem to you, there are many who follow the sea as a profession who cannot swim a stroke.” Mason then proclaimed that, as part of their instruction, all United States Naval Academy cadets should be taught to swim.

March 2006 !e Journal of American History 1327
Enslaved Swimmers and Divers in the


Long before the Portuguese ventured down the West African coast, many Africans
had become skilled swimmers, divers and surfers. In one of their first
recorded encounters, the Portuguese were amazed by the swimming and underwater
diving abilities of the Africans. The Portuguese navigator João Gonçalves
Zarco noted that his men had considerable difficulty capturing
Senegambian canoemen after they leaped into the water to avoid capture, saying
“our men had very great toil in the capture of those who were swimming,
for they dived like cormorants, so that they could not get hold of them.”2
Slaves’ expertise in underwater diving, moreover, was one of the first African
skills that New World slaveholders exploited, in the process generating considerable
profit. At the turn of the seventeenth century Pieter de Marees explained
that Venezuelan slaveholders sought Gold Coast Africans to employ as pearl
divers, noting:
[t]hey are very fast swimmers and can keep themselves underwater
for a long time. They can dive amazingly far, no
less deep, and can see underwater. Because they are so good
at swimming and diving, they are specially kept for that purpose
in many Countries and employed in this capacity where
there is a need for them, such as the Island of St. Margaret in
the West Indies, where Pearls are found and brought up from
the bottom by Divers.3




Koch Pence 2016 Ticket

Think Progress MEMO: Health Insurance, Banking, Oil Industries Met With Koch, Chamber,Glenn Beck To Plot 2010 Election
Lee Fang
on Oct 20th, 2010 at 9:50 am
Mr. Koch offers
Antonin Scalia
Clarence Thomas
of the
Supreme Court,
Gov.Haley Barbour
Bobby Jindal,
Jim DeMint
Tom Coburn, and Representatives Mike Pence,
Tom Price and Paul D. Ryan
Lee Fang,
Health Insurance, Banking, Oil Industries Met with Koch, Chamber, Glenn Beck
To Plot 2010 Election, Think Progress (Oct. 20, 2010),





Indiana governor, Mike Pence, might be a long shot candidate for the presidency as of 2014, but with the Koch brothers support he is sure to make a big splash in the 2016 presidential election.


Mike Pence attended a recent off-the-record New York dinner party that was hosted by the conservative magazine “The American Spectator”.  Pence was seated with David Koch. Koch’s family foundation is one of the largest donors to The American Spectator, which operates as a 501(c) 3 non-profit.

Who owns the spectator?
The magazine, which is currently owned by David and Frederick Barclay, who also own The Daily Telegraph, is well known for supporting the Conservative party. Editorship of The Spectator has often been cited as a step on the ladder to a high position in the Conservative Party.

It was a marriage of money and power last night at The Spectator magazine’s summer party.

David Cameron, George Osborne and Pippa Middleton turned out to celebrate the weekly Conservative magazine, which focuses on political and current events.

OxyContin abuse spreads from Appalachia across U.S.


What is the meaning of g4s?

With 618,000 employees, it is world’s third-largest private employer, the largest European and African private employer, and among the largest on the London Stock Exchange.[2][5][6] G4S was founded in 2004 by the merger of the UK-based Securicor plc with the Denmark-based Group 4 Falck.



G4S has its origins in a guarding business founded in Copenhagen in 1901 by Marius Hogrefe, originally known as København Frederiksberg Nattevagt (English: Copenhagen and Frederiksberg Night Watch) and subsequently renamed Falck (English: Falcon).[7] In 2000, Group 4, a security firm formed in the 1960s, merged with Falck to form Group 4 Falck[7] and by 2000 the company was described as “the world’s largest private security systems company”.[8] In 2002 Group 4 Falck went on to buy The Wackenhut Corporation in the United States.[9]

‘Securing Your World’: Inequality, Brutality & G4S | Real Media – The …


12 February 2016. By Kam …. A closer look at the global track record of G4S‘ human rights abuses, and use of force against the marginalised provides yet more

G4S “Carpet Karaoke” involves forcing an individual’s face down towards the carpet with such force that they are only able to scream inarticulately

G4S is a multinational security company, boasting operations in over 120 countries. It is the world’s third largest employer, and in their words ‘the leading global integrated security company specialising in the provision of security products, services and solutions.’

an alleviation of government accountability, with a new driving force searching for profit from the vulnerable, and the manufactured blind spots that come when political and media debate is so committed to maintaining the marginalised, to derision, vilification, dehumanisation and misrepresentation of BME groups, refugees, immigrants, low income groups and individuals, juveniles, young offenders, here, private unaccountable companies have been given authority.


 ‘He was saying “All you people are watching them kill me. I can’t breathe. they are going to kill me.”

Korryn Gaines or Patrick Henry

Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God! I know not what course others may take; but as for me, give me liberty or give me death!


  can’t have warrant if cops take court notice to appear away from her via


Patrick Henry https://youtu.be/UsK-SXOXhRU via @YouTube

Watch: Full Details Behind Baltimore Police Shooting and Killing Young Mother Next to Her Son


Can the Police Break Down My Door to Enter My Home? – Criminal Law

criminal-law.freeadvice.com › Law Advice › Criminal Law › Arrests And Searches

As a general rule, cops can never break down your door to enter your home in a forced entry. Before entering your home, officers must knock, announce their …

Court documents say police kicked open door at Korryn Gaines’ apartment


When Police Can and Can’t Burst Through Your Door


The U.S. Supreme Court addressed the issue of police-created exigencies in the 2010 case of Kentucky v. King, involving police entry into an apartment after they heard movement in response to their knock on the door.

Fourth Amendment notwithstanding, we really do live in a world where screaming when an unidentifiable police officer points a gun at you through your window may be all it takes to authorize knocking your door off its hinges and dragging you outside in handcuffs.FourthAmendment

no taxation without representation

large-scale hemp cultivation represents an “extraordinary income opportunity for Californians-Proposition 64 (2016)



hemp cultivation | Marijuana -Better Dead Than GMO Fed

California Marijuana Legalization Initiative, Proposition 64 (2016) 

A “yes” vote is a vote in favor of legalizing marijuana and hemp under state law and enacting certain sales and cultivation taxes.

A “no” vote is a vote against legalizing marijuana and hemp under state law and enacting certain sales and cultivation taxes.

Multiple, separate initiatives designed to legalize marijuana were filed in 2016. A full list of the initiatives filed and cleared for signature gathering can be found here.