Prior to the 1940s, there were many Black and Latino clubs and clicks, but very few outright gangs. This was also true of the white population of Los Angeles. However, this changed in the 1940s. In the 1940s, the Black population doubled as people came to work building ships and weapons for the military during World War II. At the time, Blacks and Latinos were restricted in where they could live. Blacks had to live along Central Ave. and Latinos lived mostly in East LA. As the population increased, some whites feared that Blacks and Latinos would start living outside of these restricted areas. Huntington Park, Bell, South Gate, Inglewood, Compton, Gardena, and West LA all had organized white gangs that would seek out Blacks and Latinos and harass them or beat them up. The largest of these gangs were the Spook Hunters. “Spook” is a derogatory term used toward Black people. During the 1940s, the Ku Klux Klan also emerged in LA. The first Black and Latino gangs were in response to these white gangs. The gangs acted as protection for Black and Latino neighborhoods. Incidents such as the Zoot Suit Riots, in which white marines attacked Latino zoot suiters, led to a higher degree of organization in the gangs of both Blacks and Latinos.
Nation of Islam (NOI) asks for Anti Defamation League (ADL) to define it’s nomenclature for ‘gang’ definition
No Blacks killed Jews We should not be surprised with this massive earth-shattering shift in attitude, philosophy and doctrine. Michael Chertoff of Homeland Security, the ADL and Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) made sure that law enforcement agencies in the United States view citizens, all citizens as “potential terrorists” and should be dealt with as “terrorists”.
The Sheriff’s Department stands with our partners in law enforcement and the … Charles H. Ramsey, Chief of Police, Metropolitan Police, Washington, D.C. to the …
Feb 5, 2002 – The ADL program provides law enforcement officers with a history of the … Chief Ramsey requires the one-day training of all police recruits, …
Oct 6, 2014 – BOSSI, The Rockefellers and the Men Who Killed Malcolm X. “Ehrlichman quickly found a candidate, a well-decorated, forty year-old Irish New …
Matt Bostrom took the oath of office as the 21st Sheriff of Ramsey County on January … Prior to being elected Sheriff, Matt was a member of the Saint Paul Police …
ADL Conducts Law Enforcement Training in Georgia and Nevada 3/10/04 … Holocaust Training Partnership Earns Civil Rights Award for D.C. Metro Police 2/5/ …
Aug 21, 2013 – Eugene Camp, St. Louis chief of police; Alfred Fleishman, ADL board … groups, which remained a significant problem in Missouri as the Civil Rights … our work but we have just exploded on the anti-bias training scene,” she said. … is “Law Enforcement and Society: Lessons of the Holocaust,” a partnership …
White’s prosper because, they self-police. Blacks,allowed to self-police, will also prosper.
Amid conservative exhortations that black leaders are “too focused on racism,” and insufficiently concerned about “black-on-black crime” — which claims are commonly made whenever racism is in the news, but have been especially ubiquitous in the wake of the George Zimmerman verdict — a few points are, it seems, in order.
First, the charge is simply false. Civil rights organizations and black community leaders do in fact discuss crime in urban communities often.
That most white folks — and especially those on the right — don’t know this, is simply because they don’t know many if any black people (at least not those who live in black communities), haven’t spent time themselves in those communities, and don’t read or listen to black media, where not only are such issues covered, but the efforts made by people in the community to address those problems are also highlighted; unlike in the “mainstream” (read: white) press, where they are usually ignored.
Occasionally these self-help efforts make their way into major news sources, but rarely do right-wing talk show hosts then mention the efforts of black and brown communities to address violence or self-policing.
get more political mileage out of simply blasting “black pathology,”
without context or countervailing evidence.
Oh, and needless to say they don’t praise groups like the Nation of Islam, which have a long track record of effective anti-crime initiatives in urban communities (and a history of getting black men with records moving in a more productive direction), or folks like the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, whose tenure at Trinity United Church of Christ, in Chicago, involved multiple initiatives aimed at addressing violence and crime on the South Side.
In other words, they ignore such self-help initiatives because they don’t emanate from blame-the-victim, “culture of poverty” theorists, but rather, often militant and radical black voices who speak out against crime and violence in the black community, but also against racism and systemic injustice (because black folks, unlike white conservatives apparently, are capable of addressing both at the same time).
Second, the mere fact that the term “black-on-black crime” is used (while “white-on-white crime” is never used the same way),
suggests that the phrase is more about reinforcing stereotypes of black people as inherently dangerous, than actually addressing the phenomenon of intra-group violence. The term is not benign or merely descriptive, for if it were intended as such, we would use “white-on-white” crime to describe the crime that mostly affects white people, but we don’t. And not because it’s a minor occurrence. According to the most recent comprehensive data from the Justice Department (in that it tallies crime estimates by race, for offenders and victims, and not merely for crimes reported to police, but also those that are not reported):
There were 2,788,600 white victims of violent crime involving a single offender.
In 67.4 percent of these cases, the offender was known to be white.
So, in 2008 there were at least 1.9 million white-on-white single offender violent crimes.
This, compared to roughly 369,000 black-on-black single offender violent crimes.
So, in 2008 there were more than five times as many white-on-white violent crimes involving a single offender as there were black-on-black violent crimes involving a single offender.
Oh, and, importantly: the rates of white-on-black and black-on-white violent offending here were virtually identical, contrary to common perception. 15.4 percent of white victims were victimized by blacks, while 15.9 percent of black victims were victimized by whites.
Additionally in 2008, there were 726,530 white victims of violent crime involving multiple offenders. Although large numbers of these crimes involve offenders with indeterminate racial identities, or a mix of such identities, in 42.4 percent of such incidents the offenders were both (or all) known to be white.
Meaning there were at least 308,000 white-on-white multiple offender violent crimes.
This, compared to about 117,500 black-on-black multiple offender violent crimes.
So, in all, there are roughly 2.2 million white-on-white violent crimes annually, compared to fewer than 500,000 black-on-black violent crimes, meaning that there are about four times as many of the former as the latter. Continue Reading Sourc
Prison Industry supports and demands:
There are generations of African-Americans who haven’t had two parents to show them the way.
Saint Paul, Minnesota’s [black] police chief
John Harrington said as much recently while describing the typical Afro criminal in his city (where the 10% of Blacks commit 70% of violent crime):
“‘It is the behavior of a child who doesn’t get their way,’ he says. ‘But it’s being acted out by people who are six feet tall and 240 pounds. So when they have a tantrum, that tantrum ends up with broken bones and closed eyes and split lips, and sometimes ends up with people being buried.'”
The settlement includes $100,000 in compensation paid by the St. Paul and Minneapolis police departments and the Secret Service. The settlement also includes an agreement by the St. Paul police department to implement a training program aimed at educating officers regarding the First Amendment rights of the press and public with respect to police operations, including proper procedures for dealing with the press covering demonstrations.
Police officers represent the state and, despite community policing initiatives, rely on the threat of legal violence to maintain the state’s definition of order- instead of negotiation.
Correll, J. (2009). Racial bias in the decision to shoot? The Police Chief, 54-58.
This article reviews a Chicago study and two Denver studies that assessed how community participants compared to trained police officers in shoot/don’t shoot scenarios, where the race of the armed or unarmed target was manipulated. The researchers measured reaction time (time to make the decision to shoot or not) and errors. All three studies revealed that community participants consistently exhibited racial bias, so that a lower criterion to shoot was applied to Black targets compared to White targets.
Like the community sample, the researchers found that police officers exhibited … For all instances that the harm-doer was Black, the White participants … self-reported beliefs and attitudes about Black suspects compared to White suspects.
Apr 22, 2015 – Despite actively reading and commenting on police misconduct for … Paramedics and police responded to the emergency call, but the white officer became hostile. … “Bitch, you ain’t no better than any of the other old black bitches I …. The sci-fi film’s self-aware satire went unrecognized by critics when it …You’ve visited this page 3 times. Last visit: 5/18/15
University of California, Berkeley
“Black-on-Black” Policing: Ethnic Identification Among African. American Police in … Peter Moskos, “Two Shades of Blue: Black and White in the Blue. Brotherhood” …… Losing the Race: Self-Sabotage in Black America. New York: Harper.
Mike Brogden, Professor of Criminal Justice Mike Brogden, Clifford D. Shearing – 2005 – Political Science
In South Africa, as elsewhere, voluntary self–policing has historical legitimacy. … to two related pressures—alienation from the state police (white and black), and …
In the first episode of the HBO drama “The Wire,” Baltimore’s Western Police District is introduced as a place where officers “collect bodies, split heads … the Western District way.” On April 12, 2015, in the real Western District of Baltimore, Freddie Gray was detained by police. Before long, his neck and larynx were broken, and he died in a coma seven days later.Daily News
Apr 26, 2015 – Black, white, blue and Freddie Gray: Urgent lessons about race and policing … Why did the police chase him down if they lacked probable cause? … the hands of a self-appointed neighborhood watchman gave many people …
These minstrel types, that is to say, were also black, and much of the disorder … Since the racial partitioning so necessary to white self-presence opens up the … were something like compromise formations of white self–policing, opening the …
If Black Lives are every going to mater, then Blacks will self-police and white wont know that they are here.