‘white paranoia’ spook hunters

White Gangscorporations_lincoln_quote

Prior to the 1940s, there were many Black and Latino clubs and clicks, but very few outright gangs. This was also true of the white population of Los Angeles. However, this changed in the 1940s. In the 1940s, the Black population doubled as people came to work building ships and weapons for the military during World War II. At the time, Blacks and Latinos were restricted in where they could live. Blacks had to live along Central Ave. and Latinos lived mostly in East LA. As the population increased, some whites feared that Blacks and Latinos would start living outside of these restricted areas. Huntington Park, Bell, South Gate, Inglewood, Compton, Gardena, and West LA all had organized white gangs that would seek out Blacks and Latinos and harass them or beat them up. The largest of these gangs were the Spook Hunters. “Spook” is a derogatory term used toward Black people. During the 1940s, the Ku Klux Klan also emerged in LA. The first Black and Latino gangs were in response to these white gangs. The gangs acted as protection for Black and Latino neighborhoods.  Incidents such as the Zoot Suit Riots, in which white marines attacked Latino zoot suiters, led to a higher degree of organization in the gangs of both Blacks and Latinos.

The Spook Hunters would often cross Alameda traveling west to violently attack black youths from the area.


NO Video-San Bernardino: Witnesses Saw 3 Men In Black Masks With Long Rifles Attack In Shooting


Stratification (botany)

In the wild

In the wild, seed dormancy is usually overcome by the seed spending time in the ground through a winter period and having its hard seed coat softened up by frost and weathering action. By doing so the seed is undergoing a natural form of “stratification” or pretreatment. This cold moist period triggers the seed’s embryo, its growth and subsequent expansion eventually break through the softened seed coat in its search for sun and nutrients.

Move Beyond race to Missing surveillance video and Forfeitures 

Laquan McDonald ,

How did /BillGates get my kid’s test scores? Hmmm STOP ALEC from Executing high score achievers on our streets

LaSyed Farook,

student/scientist /father
environmental health specialist San Bernardino, pharmacist, wife ;

Anita Datar

US aid worker killed in Mali hotel attack, ‘best of America’

Israel behind assassinations of scientists


“Why of course the people don’t want war … But after all it is the leaders of the country who determine the policy, and it is always a simple matter to drag the people along, whether it is a democracy, or a fascist dictatorship, or a parliament, or a communist dictatorship … Voice or no voice, the people can always be brought to the bidding of the leaders. That is easy. All you have to do is to tell them they are being attacked, and denounce the pacifists for lack of patriotism and exposing the country to danger. It works the same in any country.”
– Hermann Goering, Nazi leader.

“The easiest way to gain control of a population is to carry out acts of terror. [The public] will clamor for such laws if their personal security is threatened”.
– Josef Stalin

Terrorism is the best political weapon for nothing drives people harder than a fear of sudden death”.
– Adolph Hitler

“From 1928 to 1932, the German National Socialist (Nazi) Party’s share of the vote skyrocketed from 2.6 percent to 37.3 percent. While many commentators have attributed the Nazis’ success to its appeal to the lower middle class … the facts unequivocally reveal that it was the upper middle class that most strongly voted for Hitler… The Nazis were seen as patriotic, anti-communist, and religious. The people who voted Nazi were not so much people who had fallen economically, but people who feared falling and wanted to stay on top.” — from the book Rollback by Thomas Bodenheimer and Robert Gould


Mirrored from Washington’s Blog (due to their server being swamped)

Presidents, Prime Ministers, Congressmen, Generals, Spooks, Soldiers and Police ADMIT to False Flag Terror

In the following instances, officials in the government which carried out the attack (or seriously proposed an attack) admit to it, either orally, in writing, or through photographs or videos:

Three scientists investigating melting Arctic ice may have been assassinated, professor claims
– Telegraph

Who Killed All Those
British Star Wars Scientists?
Did 22 SDI Researchers really ALL Commit Suicide?

Another Dead NASA Scientist, ‘SEVENTY FOUR’ Scientists dead in 2 years!

Why have so many scientists been mysteriously killed over the last 24 months?

Dead Scientists And
Microbiologists – Master List

Mexico reopens investigation into 43 missing students

Why do the families not believe the official report?

They think officials have failed to investigate the role soldiers from a nearby barracks may have played in the students’ disappearance. The government has refused to let the soldiers, who were in the area at the time of the disappearance, be questioned by anyone but government prosecutors. The families also point to the report by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights which said that there was no evidence the bodies of the 43 were burned at the dump.

#BlackTwitter Fort Wagner,The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground #BlackLivesMatter Krav Maga

New York – Israeli IDF Vets Train NY Jewish Paramilitaries

Police Training

gold’s gym IDF ADL COPS training New York Israeli Krav Maga

54th Mass.

The confederate army never gave up on slavery, they just lost the war: What would GAZA do.


Negus |ˈniːgəs|
noun historical
a ruler, or the supreme ruler, of Ethiopia.
ORIGIN from Amharic n’gus ‘king’.

The 54th left Boston with fanfare on May 28, 1863, and arrived to more celebrations in Beaufort, South Carolina. They were greeted by local blacks and by Northern abolitionists, some of whom had deployed from Boston a year earlier as missionaries to the Port Royal Experiment.[11] In Beaufort, they joined with the 2nd South Carolina Volunteers, a unit of South Carolina freedmen led by James Montgomery.[12] After the 2nd Volunteers’ successful Raid at Combahee Ferry, Montgomery led both units in a raid on the town of Darien, Georgia.[13] The population had fled, and Montgomery ordered the soldiers to loot and burn the empty town.[14] Shaw objected to this activity and complained over Montgomery’s head that burning and looting were not suitable activities for his model regiment.[15]

The regiment’s first battlefield action took place in a skirmish with Confederate troops on James Island, South Carolina, on July 16. The regiment stopped a Confederate assault,[16] losing 42 men in the process.[citation needed]

A letter from First Sergeant Robert John Simmons, a former British Army soldier from Bermuda serving in B Company, written shortly before the attack on Battery Wagner, was published in the New York Tribune on the 23rd of December, 1863.[17]

Folly Island, South Carolina

July 18, 1863;

We are on the march to Fort Wagner, to storm it. We have just completed our successful retreat from James Island; we fought a desperate battle there Thursday morning. Three companies of us, B, H, and K, were out on picket about a good mile in advance of the regiment. We were attacked early in the morning. Our company was in the reserve, when the outposts were attacked by rebel infantry and cavalry. I was sent out by our Captain in command of a squad of men to support the left flank. The bullets fairly rained around us; when I got there the poor fellows were falling down around me, with pitiful groans. Our pickets only numbered about 250 men, attacked by about 900. It is supposed by the line of battle in the distance, that they were supported by reserve of 3,000 men. We had to fire and retreat toward our own encampment. One poor Sergeant of ours was shot down along side of me; several others were wounded near me. God has protected me through this, my first fiery, leaden trial, and I do give Him the glory, and render my praises unto His holy name. My poor friend [Sergeant Peter] Vogelsang is shot through the lungs; his case is critical, but the doctor says he may probably live. His company suffered very much. Poor good and brave Sergeant (Joseph D.) Wilson of his company [H], after killing four rebels with his bayonet, was shot through the head by the fifth one. Poor fellow… May his brave and noble spirit rest in peace. The General has complimented the Colonel on the galantry and bravery of his regiment.

Depiction of the attack on Fort Wagner in the painting The Old Flag Never Touched the Ground

The regiment gained recognition on July 18, 1863, when it spearheaded an assault on Fort Wagner near Charleston, South Carolina. 272 of the 600 men who charged Fort Wagner were “killed, wounded or captured.”[18] At this battle Colonel Shaw was killed, along with 29 of his men; 24 more later died of wounds, 15 were captured, 52 were missing in action and never accounted for, and 149 were wounded. The total regimental casualties of 272 would be the highest total for the 54th in a single engagement during the war. Although Union forces were not able to take and hold the fort (despite taking a portion of the walls in the initial assault), the 54th was widely acclaimed for its valor during the battle, and the event helped encourage the further enlistment and mobilization of African-American troops, a key development that President Abraham Lincoln once noted as helping to secure the final victory. Decades later, Sergeant William Harvey Carney was awarded the Medal of Honor for grabbing the U.S. flag as the flag bearer fell, carrying the flag to the enemy ramparts and back, and singing “Boys, the old flag never touched the ground!” While other African Americans had since been granted the award by the time it was presented to Carney, Carney’s is the earliest action for which the Medal of Honor was awarded to an African American.[citation needed]

Boston 54th Fort Wagner

The Battle of Olustee

Ironically, during the week leading up to the 54th’s action near Charleston, simmering racial strife climaxed in the New York Draft Riots.[19] African Americans on the city’s waterfront and Lower East Side were beaten, tortured, and lynched by white mobs angered over conscription for the Union war effort; rioters mortally wounded the nephew of Sergeant Robert Simmons,[20] who would himself be mortally wounded and captured at Fort Wagner.[21] These mobs directed their animosity toward blacks because they felt the Civil War was caused by them. However, the bravery of the 54th would help to assuage anger of this kind.[citation needed]

Re-Training ADL COPS Koch Chemicals Knees Head Back Neck Taser Stick Boots Handcuffs guns Vest cars all tax payer provided Protection for Gang COPS and none for children

Proffer Dreamers Dream Defenders( DDLDF) Legal Defense Fund NOI :$5 per month X 30 million people =$150 million per month + interest per month:


Krav Ma·ga
ˌkräv məˈɡä/
noun: Krav Maga
  1. a form of self-defense and physical training, first developed by the Israeli army in the 1940s, based on the use of reflexive responses to threatening situations.
1990s: from Hebrew, ‘contact combat.’
Translate krav maga to
Proffer dream defenders NOI Dreamers

Proffer dream defenders NOI Dreamers

Noted 2000 census Black 9% German16 % Irish 11% Total US Population.
FEW doubt that there is something seriously wrong with policing in America. Far too many people, chiefly unarmed, young black men, are dying at the hands of police. Every new police video invites more hand-wringing over seeing a law-enforcement system that is unjust. Many people, chiefly unarmed,young black men, are dying at the hands of police.Young black men are also 21 times more likely to be killed by cops than young white men, according to one ProPublica analysis of the data we have. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention also compiled data which shows that people of color are most likely to be killed by cops overall. In short, people who belong to marginalized communities are at a higher risk of being shot than those who are not.
Congress Just Passed A Law Requiring Police Departments To Count How Many People They Shoot. Cops meet quotas by over-policing neighborhoods that Cops, themselves, feel safest in. http://www.economist.com/blogs… http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/D…

ADL Training in Excessive Force [Theme] is trending and killing:

1.“Put him on his face and

2.  put a knee in his back,”

“I guarantee that he’ll shut up.”


Whittle appears to have completely surrendered before Chinn arrived, and Whittle’s “furtive movements” hardly explain

1. kicking the man in the head,

2. kneeing him in the back,

and tasing him.

Freddie Gray: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know | Heavy.com

  • heavy.com/…/freddie-gray-baltimore-dead-cause-of-death-in-police-cust…

Apr 19, 2015 – Gray’s Spine Was ’80 Percent Severed’ at His Neck While in Police … for reasons that are unknown to us and put him back in the vehicle. …. WHITE COPS are UNDER SEIGE by the OBAMA ADMINISTRATION, the ACLU, the ADL, the SPLC, …. Cops are trained a knee in the back……after all these knees …

Denver Cops Hold Down Handcuffed Man Face First with …

Mar 16, 2015 – It also said that he kicked two officers, disobeyed orders and put up a struggle. … I again applied pressure to his upper shoulders with my knee … … a prone position with pressure on the back of the neck risks significant injury 

Freddie Gray Dies After Spine Injured in Police Custody …


Apr 20, 2015 – Police could be seen on video restraining a handcuffed Gray face … “He was handcuffed, and at this point, they had knees in his back and his … 


Oct 30, 2014 – I was on the ground before I knew it, knee to my neck. … Four officers pinned me down, one by crushing his knee into my neck. … Three other protestors were already face down on the floor. … my shoulder as he yanked my right arm back before handcuffing me. … The police had put a barrier at 42nd street. 

Denver cop disciplined after putting his knee and all his …

Mar 15, 2015 – Denver cop disciplined after putting his knee and all his weight on a suspect’s neck for minutes … suspect’s neck who was already handcuffed face down in a planter on Aug. … unless you want to put you foot back on my neck.

Videographer: Freddie Gray was folded like ‘origami …

The Baltimore Sun

Apr 23, 2015 – Kevin Moore was asleep in his home the morning of April 12, when his uncle yelled to … “screaming for his life,” and planted face down on the ground with one Baltimore bicycle police officer’s knee on his neck and the other bicycle officer bending his legs backward so that Gray’s heels were in his back .

Membership in the Explorers has been overseen since 1998 by an affiliate of  the Boy Scouts of America called Learning for Life, which offers 12 career-related programs, including those focused on aviation, medicine and the sciences.

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But the more than 2,000 law enforcement posts across the country are the Explorers’ most popular, accounting for 35,000 of the group’s 145,000 members, said John Anthony, national director of Learning for Life. Since the attacks of Sept. 11, 2001, and the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, many posts have taken on an emphasis of fighting terrorism and other less conventional threats.

ADL Training COPS

a Border Patrol agent explained.

Put him on his face and

put a knee in his back,”

“I guarantee that he’ll shut up.”


Whittle appears to have completely surrendered before Chinn arrived, and Whittle’s “furtive movements” hardly explain

1. kicking the man in the head,

2. kneeing him in the back,

and tasing him.

Many law enforcement officials, particularly those who work for the rapidly growing Border Patrol, part of the Homeland Security Department, have helped shape the program’s focus and see it as preparing the Explorers as potential employees. The Explorer posts are attached to various agencies, including the Federal Bureau of Investigation and local police and fire departments, that sponsor them much the way churches sponsor Boy Scout troops.

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The Boy Scout-Explorer Program is Teaching Children How …


May 16, 2009 – In this example it was the Boy Scouts of America Explorer Program who sullied the … in this town near the Mexican border, and the gunman, a disgruntled Iraq war veteran, … fear have spawned when Explorer Scout Leaders decide to put guns in the hands ….. Anti-Defamation League: Gaza Is Anti-SLAVER! Slavery Cost Middle Class Jobs.  

Apr 15, 2015 – From YGB From Ferguson to Madison Violent Police Arrest Peaceful Protestors … They had their knee on his neck and his face in the dirt. I tried to put my hand under his face to protect it, but then they ….. On the Fourth Amendment, back in 1972 … of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Employment and Training Institute)

  • Raw Video Shows Cop Use His Knee to Crush Woman’s …


    Mar 14, 2015 – If a cop put his hands all over your wife or daughter like this and tried to … Medina intends to take his job back, and is fighting the punishment. The report found that when Officer Medina used his knee to pin down the woman’s neck, …. we regular citizens face & it will continue, with or without our comments …

  • Police officer fired after he was caught with his knee against …

    Mar 12, 2015 – Police officer fired after brutal footage showed him forcing his knee … A police officer has been sacked after he was filmed forcing his knee against a female suspect’s neck until … Trujillo had been arrested for allegedly kicking Medina in the face … Trujillo sits back down as Medina gathers her belongings. 



    Apr 28, 2015 – Sources allege that Gray also attempted to refinance his structured settlement …

    recruiting, arming, training? viaBaltimore police and Freddie Gray rioters ….

    they have been using these tactics via the ADL, NAACO, SPLC, BNAI … A knee in the back, and a knee in the back of the neck, is still excessive force.

Street Gang or Peace Officer #BlackFlags? Off-duty Cop Arrested for Drive-by Shooting

Nation of Islam (NOI) asks for Anti Defamation League (ADL) to define it’s nomenclature for ‘gang’ definition

Self Policing for Tax Credit palestine_flag_waving24 I know Whose killing kids? U.S.-Israel Strategic Cooperation-Joint Police & Law Enforcement Training

No Blacks killed Jews We should not be surprised with this massive earth-shattering shift in attitude, philosophy and doctrine. Michael Chertoff of Homeland Security, the ADL and Jewish Institute for National Security Affairs (JINSA) made sure that law enforcement agencies in the United States view citizens, all citizens as “potential terrorists” and should be dealt with as “terrorists”.thomas_jefferson_quote_2

ADL and Law Enforcement: Testimonials to a Productive …

Saint Paul, Minnesota’s [black] police chief John Harrington said as much recently while describing the typical Afro criminal in his city (where the 10% of Blacks commit 70% of violent crime):

Saint Paul, Minnesota’s [black] police chief John Harrington ADL

@POTUS OBAMA;ADL Philadelphia Chief Ramsey

@POTUS OBAMA;ADL Philadelphia Chief Ramsey;

Anti‑Defamation League

The Sheriff’s Department stands with our partners in law enforcement and the … Charles H. Ramsey, Chief of Police, Metropolitan Police, Washington, D.C. to the …

corp dont care if you are peacful or not

Holocaust Training Partnership Earns Civil Rights Award for …

Anti‑Defamation League

Feb 5, 2002 – The ADL program provides law enforcement officers with a history of the … Chief Ramsey requires the one-day training of all police recruits, …

The Rockefellers and the Men Who Killed Malcolm X


Oct 6, 2014 – BOSSI, The Rockefellers and the Men Who Killed Malcolm X. “Ehrlichman quickly found a candidate, a well-decorated, forty year-old Irish New …

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Matt Bostrom took the oath of office as the 21st Sheriff of Ramsey County on January … Prior to being elected Sheriff, Matt was a member of the Saint Paul Police …

ADL and Law Enforcement Archive

St. Louis Jewish Light

Aug 21, 2013 – Eugene Camp, St. Louis chief of police; Alfred Fleishman, ADL board … groups, which remained a significant problem in Missouri as the Civil Rights … our work but we have just exploded on the anti-bias training scene,” she said. … is “Law Enforcement and Society: Lessons of the Holocaust,” a partnership …

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Self Policing for Tax Credit palestine_flag_waving

Dream Defenders DDLDF LegalDefenseFund $5 per month X 30 million people =150 million per month + interest per month:

Proffer dream defenders NOI Dreamers

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Anti‑Defamation N.O.I. Security Agency, Inc. FOI Captains … Funds from N.O.I. Security Agency

Dec 12, 1993 – It is the type of respect that no other security guards or police have received in … guards from Baltimore-based N.O.I. Security Agency Inc.





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More than just a science — a social movement!

Earlier this year, an advisory panel of public health experts recommended a groundbreaking shift in federal dietary guidelines, advising the U.S. Department of Agriculture and Health and Human Services to adopt a public policy that promotes food that is good for both our health and the environment.

A signatory to the letter, Mindi Schneider, assistant professor of Agrarian, Food and Environmental Studies at the Institute of Social Studies (ISS) in The Hague, said: “Agroecology is more than just a science, it’s also a social movement for justice that recognises and respects the right of communities of farmers to decide what they grow and how they grow it.”

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N.O.I. Security Agency

In 1988 the Nation of Islam (N.O.I) created a separate security agency using members of the Fruit of Islam. The agency received contracts primarily to patrol and staff public housing complexes in tough urban areas like Baltimore, Washington, D.C., Philadelphia, Chicago, and Los Angeles and received at least $20 million in the 1990s for security work.

Getting past the new found fear perception pirported by ADL and Law enforcement. Through its Law Enforcement Education Program (LEEP), JINSA claims to have arranged Israeli-led training sessions for over 9000 American law enforcement officials at the federal, state and municipal level. “The Israelis changed the way we do business regarding homeland security in New Jersey,” Richard Fuentes, the NJ State Police Superintendent, said after attending a 2004 JINSA-sponsored Israel trip and a subsequent JINSA conference alongside 435 other law enforcement officers.

Two former JINSA advisors who have also consulted for Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu, Douglas Feith and Richard Perle, went on to serve in the Department of Defense under President George W. Bush, playing influential roles in the push to invade and occupy Iraq.

Obstacles: NO-More-ADL-via Self-Policing w/NOI http://issuu.com/elainewatson9/docs/financing/1 addressing violence and crime on the SouthSide.COPS wNo more Fear


NOI Security had notable successes in Washington, D.C. projects particularly, but had difficulty in others and faced opposition by some members of Congress and the Anti-Defamation League, among others. It also faced scrutiny from federal agencies for racial and gender preference in hiring and from the IRS for failure to withhold taxes from employees.[4][5][6][7]

respect and calm is returning to Flag. And Baltimore housing officials and tenants give a large share of the credit to the unarmed, bow-tie-wearing guards from Baltimore-based N.O.I. Security Agency Inc.

“These guys are more involved with the community than any other security people who worked over here,” says Derrick Turpin, 26, a lifelong Flag resident. “Sometimes, they have their [news]papers out there and the bean pies. You can see some of the young kids around here look up to them; they even want to put on bow ties.”

The company is finding success where the police and other security guards have failed. Some say it is because of the respect the Nation of Islam enjoys in many African-American communities for the clean, disciplined lifestyles .

NOI also benefits from respectful image of the Fruit of Islam, an elite security force that serves as bodyguards for Mr. Farrakhan and provided protection for the Rev. Jesse Jackson during part of his 1984 presidential bid.

Whatever the reason, Baltimore housing officials say NOI has virtually eliminated violent crime in three high-rise buildings at Flag. Housing officials have since broadened the group’s no-bid contract to include several buildings at the Lafayette Courts and Lexington Terrace developments.

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“This is critical for future agricultural policies. Currently, most subsidies go to large agribusiness. This must change. Governments must support small farmers. As rural people are migrating increasingly to cities, this is generating huge problems.

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“Empirical and scientific evidence shows that small farmers feed the world. According to the UN Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO), 70% of food we consume globally comes from small farmers”, said Prof Elver.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about industrial and foodstuff products that are derived from hemp cultivars of the Cannabis plant. For the usage of Cannabis as a drug, see Cannabis supplemnts. For other uses, see Hemp (disambiguation).

La Mota ‏@lamotagrow May 20 L'arbre du bonheur :)  El árbol de la alegría. The tree of happiness.

La Mota ‏@lamotagrow May 20
L’arbre du bonheur 🙂
El árbol de la alegría.
The tree of happiness.

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Hemp (from Old English hænep) is a commonly used term for high-growing varieties of the Cannabis plant and its products, which include fiber, oil, and seed. Hemp is refined into products such as hemp seed foods, hemp oil, wax, resin, rope, cloth, pulp, paper, and fuel.

Other variants of the herb Cannabis are widely used as a drug, commonly known as marijuana. These variants are typically low-growing and have higher content of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), and other cannabinoids. The legality of Cannabis varies widely from country to country, and from state to state in the United States. In many countries regulatory limits for concentrations of psychoactive drug compounds, particularly THC, in hemp require the use of strains of the plant which are bred for low content.[1]

5 Differences Between Hemp and Marijuana

Hemp and marijuana are two popular names for the cannabis plant. The word cannabis often brings to mind images .

Crime initiatives in urban communities

(and a history of getting black men with records moving in a more productive direction), are folks like the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, whose tenure at Trinity United Church of Christ, in Chicago, involved multiple initiatives aimed at addressing violence and crime on the South Side. Oh, and needless to say they don’t praise groups like the NOI, which have a long track record of effective anti-crime initiatives in urban communities (and a history of getting black men with records moving in a more productive direction), or folks like the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, whose tenure at Trinity United Church of Christ, in Chicago, involved multiple initiatives aimed at addressing violence and crime on the South Side.

Community respect arms Nation of Islam guards – Collections

Anti‑Defamation League

The Anti-Defamation League (ADL) has been awarded a $100,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Community Oriented Policing Services …

Community Policing Network Supports the Nation of Islam – Stormfront

http://www.stormfront.org › News › Newslinks & Articles

Aug 14, 2002 – The Community Oriented Policing Movement is coordinated by the US Dept. of Justice. The role of Community Policing is to advance “social …

By Anita Elaine Henderson-Watson


Baby Algebra For Baby and You

Never talk to police

Never talk to police

Google+ By Introducing baby to algebra as early as the baby shower via algebra themed baby beginnings, such as: mobiles, room plaques, pacifiers and other baby algebra paraphernalia, we inundate baby with the message that algebra is important to baby and family tradition.

Baby algebra uses pictures and key words to help Baby to generalize and grasp algebra concepts. Therefore, we can think our way through the stepping-stones called tests.

While Colors and images react. Colors with one side of the brain, images with the other side of the brain, together, create and complete the learning process inherent at birth. WALLA! Baby does algebra. Algebra is Art Google+

FORMAT: Softcover

College Degree Basic Requirement for COPS

Understanding Probable Cause (PC)

Officer discernment |dɪˈsəːnm(ə)nt|
noun [ mass noun ]
the ability to judge well: an astonishing lack of discernment

‘Blackness is not probable cause.’



marijuana Odor Perception-  Studies Modeled From Probable Cause Cases

It’s important to know what does and does not constitute PC for any given situation.

Officers with four-year degrees are more skilled at resolving problems without having to resort to force, and they often give citizens alternative means of compliance instead of simply relying on the stick, the mace or the gun.

Probable cause is the legal standard by which a police officer has the right to make an arrest, conduct a personal or property search, or to obtain a warrant.

PC is something more than the “reasonable suspicion” required to justify a temporary investigative detention.

The headlines today are full of officers making arguably poor — if not downright criminal — decisions: shooting unarmed black teenagers, beating up suspects, using Tasers to the point of death, conducting high-speed — and deadly — car chases through populated city streets, and so on.

A better educated police force would likely be better equipped to evaluate and respond to the volatile situations officers encounter.

The Commission on Accreditation for Law Enforcement Agencies, Inc., notes that higher education is not an “absolute answer” but stated in its 1994 Standards Manual that “Officers who have received a broad general education have a better opportunity to gain a more thorough understanding of society, to communicate more effectively with citizens, and to engage in the exploration of new ideas and concepts.”

Numerous studies conducted since the 1970s have suggested that the benefits of higher education in policing include:

•Better behavioral and performance characteristics;

•Fewer on-the-job injuries and assaults;

•Fewer disciplinary actions from accidents and use of force allegations;

•Greater acceptance of minorities;

•And a decrease in dogmatism, authoritarianism, rigidity and conservatism.

**Embargo: St. Louis, MO**Police from various departments face off with protesters in Ferguson, Missouri on the night of March 11, 2015 following the resignation of Ferguson Police Chief Thomas Jackson earlier in the day.

**Embargo: St. Louis, MO**Police from various departments face off with protesters in Ferguson, Missouri on the night of March 11, 2015 following the resignation of Ferguson Police Chief Thomas Jackson earlier in the day.

Ankeny Cop Tries To Search Car Because ‘Everybody that Plays Frisbee Golf Smokes Weed’